Click to enlargeIntroduction to<br>Mobile Telephone Systems<br> 2nd Edition<a name="top">

1G, 2G, 2.5G, and 3G Technologies and Services

Author: Lawrence Harte
Number of Pages: 92
Copyright: 2006


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This book explains the different types of mobile telephone systems and how they are the evolving from 1st generation analog, through 2nd generation digital to high-speed 3rd generation digital broadband systems. It describes the key components, how they operate and the different types of wireless voice, data and information services they can provide.

You will learn the terminology (terms and acronyms) for mobile telephone systems along with the key technologies. Learn how speech compression (voice coding) operates and how it allows more than 10 times as many users to share a single communication channel. Discover the different types of more....

Sample Diagrams

There are 19 explanatory diagrams in this book

Analog Cellular System

This figure shows a basic analog cellular system. This diagram shows that there are two types of radio channels; control channels and voice channels. Control channels typically use frequency shift keying (FSK) to send control messages (data) between the mobile phone and the base station. Voice channels typically use FM modulation with brief bursts of digital information to allow control messages (such as handoff) during conversation. Base stations typically have two antennas for receiving and one for transmitting. Dual receiver antennas increase the ability to receive the radio signal from mobile telephones which typically have a much lower transmitter power level than the transmitters in the base station. Base stations are connected to a mobile switching center (MSC) typically by a high speed telephone line or microwave radio system. This interconnection must allow both voice and control information to be exchanged between the switching system and the base station. The MSC is connected to the telephone network to allow mobile telephones to be connected to standard landline telephones.

Mobile Network

This figure shows a simplified functional diagram of a mobile network that is used in a majority of Telephone Systems. This diagram shows that the mobile system is composed of 3 key parts; the user equipment (UE), radio access network (RAN) and a core interconnecting network (CN). The UE is divided into 2 parts, the mobile equipment (ME) and the subscriber identity module (SIM) card. The RAN is composed of base stations and base station controllers (BSCs). This example shows that the BSCs connect voice calls to mobile switching centers (MSCs) and connects data sessions to packet data service nodes (PDSNs). The core network is basically divided into circuit switched (primarily voice) and packet switched (primarily data) parts. The core network circuit switch parts contain the serving MSC (SMSC) and a gateway MSC (GMSC). The serving SMSC connects to the RAN system and the gateway GMSC connects to the public telephone network. The core network packet switched parts contain the serving general packet radio service (GPRS) support node (SGSN) and a gateway GPRS service node (GGSN). The SGSN connects to the RAN system and the GGSN connects to data networks such as the Internet.

Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) Card

This figure shows a block diagram of a SIM. This diagram shows that SIM cards have 8 electrical contacts. This allows for power to be applied to the electronic circuits inside the card and for data to be sent to and from the card. The card contains a microprocessor that is used to store and retrieve data, most phones for example T-Mobile BlackBerry phones. Identification information is stored in the cards protected memory that is not accessible by the customer. Additional memory is included to allow features or other information such as short messages to be stored on the card.



Table of Contents

Introduction to Mobile Telephone Systems, 2nd Edition

Mobile Technologies

Cellular Frequency Reuse
Handover
Speech Compression
Modulation Types
Access Multiplexing
-Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)
-Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)
-Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)
-Spatial Division Multiple Access (SDMA)
Packet Data

Mobile Devices

Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)
PCMCIA Air Cards
Embedded Radio Modules
Mobile Telephones
External Radio Modems

Mobile Systems

Base Stations
-Radio Antenna Towers
-Communication Links
-Mobile Switching Center (MSC)
-Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA)
-Interworking Function (IWF)
-Message Center (MC)
-Serving General Packet Radio Service Support Node (SGSN)
-Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN)
-Base Station Controller (BSC)
-Voice Message System (VMS)
-Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)
-Public Packet Data Network (PPDN)
Network Databases
-Home Location Register (HLR)
-Visitor Location Register (VLR)
-Equipment Identity Register (EIR)
-Billing Center (BC)
-Authentication Centre (AuC)
-Number Portability Database (NPDB)
IP Backbone Network

Mobile System Operation

Initialization
Idle
Access Control and Initial Assignment
-Authentication
-Paging
Connected Mode
Packet Data Scheduling Algorithm
Registration

Analog Systems (1st Generation)

Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS)
Total Access Communication System (TACS)
Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT)
Narrowband AMPS (NAMPS)
Japanese Mobile Cellular System (MCS)
CNET
MATS-E

Digital Cellular Systems (2nd Generation)

Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM)
North American TDMA (IS-136 TDMA)
Extended TDMA (E-TDMA)TM
Integrated Dispatch Enhanced Network (iDEN)
Code Division Multiple Access (IS-95 CDMA)
Japanese Personal Digital Cellular (PDC)

Packet Digital Cellular Systems (Generation 2.5)

General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)
Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE)
CDMA2000 1xRTT
Evolution Data Only (1xEVDO)
Evolution Data and Voice (1xEVDV)

Wideband Digital Cellular Systems (3rd Generation)

Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA)
Code Division Multiple Access 2000 (CDMA2000)
Time Division Synchronous CDMA (TD-SCDMA)

Fourth Generation (4G) Networks

Mobile Services

Voice Services
-Circuit Switched Voice
-Push to Talk (PTT)
Messaging
Data Service
-Circuit Switched Data
-Packet Switched Data
Location Based Services (LBS)
Multicast Services
Quality of Service (QoS)
-Conversation Class
-Streaming Class
-Interactive Class
-Background Class

Mobile Telephone Systems Acronyms-Appendix 1

1G - First Generation
1xEVDO - One Channel Evolution Version Data Only
1xEVDV - One Channel Evolution Version Data and Voice
2.5G - Second And A Half Generation
2G - Second Generation
3G - Third Generation
3GPP - 3rd Generation Partnership Project
3GPP2 - 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2
4G - Fourth Generation
8-PSK - 8 Level PSK
AAA - Authentication, Authorization, Accounting
ACC - Analog Control Channel
AMPS - Advanced Mobile Phone Service
AuC - Authentication Center
BC - Billing Center
BCH - Broadcast Channel
BER - Bit Error Rate
BS - Base Station
BSC - Base Station Controller
BTS - Base Transceiver Station
CBR - Constant Bit Rate
CDG - CDMA Development Group
CDMA - Code Division Multiple Access
CDMA2000 - Code Division Multiple Access 2000
CDR - Call Detail Record
CN - Core Network
D/R - Distance to Reuse Ratio
DAMPS - Digital Advance Mobile Phone Service
DCC - Digital Color Code
DTA - Data Transfer Adapter
DTC - Digital Traffic Channel
EDGE - Enhanced Data Rates For Global Evolution
EDI - Electronic Data Interchange
EIR - Equipment Identity Register
ESMR - Enhanced Specialized Mobile Radio
ETACS - Extended TACS
ETDMA - Extended Time Division Multiple Access
FDD - Frequency Division Duplex
FDM - Frequency Division Multiplexing
FDMA - Frequency Division Multiple Access
FM - Frequency Modulation
FSK - Frequency Shift Keying
GGSN - Gateway GPRS Support Node
GMSC - Gateway Mobile Switching Center
GMSK - Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying
GPRS - General Packet Radio Service
GPS - Global Positioning System
GSM - Global System For Mobile Communications
GSN - GPRS Support Node
HLR - Home Location Register
IC - Interchange Carrier
iDEN - Integrated Dispatch Enhanced Network
IMEI - International Mobile Equipment Identifier
IMSI - International Mobile Subscriber Identity
ITU - International Telecommunication Union
IWF - Interworking Function
LBS - Location Based Services
LMR - Land Mobile Radio
MC - Message Center
MC - Multicarrier Mode
MCS - Mobile Cellular System
ME - Mobile Equipment
MIN - Mobile Identification Number
MIRS - Motorola Integrated Radio System
MSC - Mobile Station Class
MSC - Mobile Switching Center
MTS - Mobile Telephone Service
NAMPS - Narrowband Advanced Mobile Phone Service
NMT - Nordic Mobile Telephone
NPDB - Number Portability Database
NTACS - Narrowband Total Access Communication System
PAD - Packet Assembler And Disassembler
PCM - Pulse Coded Modulation
PCN - Personal Communications Network
PCS - Personal Communication Services
PDA - Personal Digital Assistant
PDC - Personal Digital Cellular
PDSN - Packet Data Switched Network
PM - Phase Modulation
PM - Pulse Modulation
PN - Packet Number
PN - Pseudo-Random Noise
PPDN - Public Packet Data Network
PSTN - Public Switched Telephone Network
PTT - Post, Telephone And Telegraph
PTT - Push To Talk
QoS - Quality Of Service
RAN - Radio Access Network
RNC - Radio Network Controller
SCH - Synchronization Channel
SDMA - Spatial Division Multiple Access
SGSN - Serving General Packet Radio Service Support Node
SIM - Subscriber Identity Module
SIS - Subscriber Identity Security
SMS - Short Message Service
SMSC - Short Message Service Center
TACS - Total Access Communications System
TCH - Traffic Channel
TDD - Time Division Duplex
TDMA - Time Division Multiple Access
TD-SCDMA - Time Division Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access
TIA - Telecommunications Industry Association
UE - User Equipment
UMTS - Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
UPR - User Performance Requirements
USB - Universal Serial Bus
VLR - Visitor Location Register
VMS - Voice Mail System
WCDMA - Wideband Code Division Multiple Access
WLAN - Wireless Local Area Network

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About the Authors

Mr. Lawrence Harte is the president of Althos, an expert information provider which researches, trains, and publishes on technology and business industries. He has over 29 years of technology analysis, development, implementation, and business management experience. Mr. Harte has worked for leading companies including Ericsson/General Electric, Audiovox/Toshiba and Westinghouse and has consulted for hundreds of other companies. Mr. Harte continually researches, analyzes, and tests new communication technologies, applications, and services. He has authored over 60 books on telecommunications technologies and business systems covering topics such as mobile telephone systems, data communications, voice over data networks, broadband, prepaid services, billing systems, sales, and Internet marketing. Mr. Harte holds many degrees and certificates including an Executive MBA from Wake Forest University (1995) and a BSET from the University of the State of New York, (1990).

Description

This book explains the different types of mobile telephone systems and how they are the evolving from 1st generation analog, through 2nd generation digital to high-speed 3rd generation digital broadband systems. It describes the key components, how they operate and the different types of wireless voice, data and information services they can provide.

You will learn the terminology (terms and acronyms) for mobile telephone systems along with the key technologies. Learn how speech compression (voice coding) operates and how it allows more than 10 times as many users to share a single communication channel. Discover the different types of system access technologies including FDMA, TDMA, CDMA and SDMA. Explained are the basic types of modulation technologies and how they are evolving to increase the data transmission rates with less available bandwidth. Find out why and how cellular systems are converting from dedicated circuit switched connections to high-speed packet data systems.

The key parts of mobile communication systems are described including mobile equipment, radio access network (RAN) and the core network (CN). You will learn the basic operation of the base stations and how they may communicate with mobile switching systems (MSC) for voice communication or how they communicate with packet switching systems for data communication (such as accessing the Internet). You will learn about the different types of mobile devices including multi-mode handsets, embedded communication devices, data-only cards and adapter boxes.

Learn the key types of 1st generate analog cellular systems including AMPS, TACS, NMT, MCS, CNET and MATS-E. Discover how 2nd generation digital cellular increased the system efficiency to allow between 3 to 20 times the number of customers to share each radio channel. You will learn the basics about GSM, IS-136 TDMA and CDMA systems.

Explained is the evolution of 2nd generation mobile systems into 2.5G systems that can offer medium speed data services (approximately 500 kbps). The systems covered include GPRS, EDGE, EVDO and EVDV.

The wideband 3rd generation systems WCDMA/UMTS and CDMA2000 are described along with how these systems can allow 50 to 100 users to simultaneously share each radio channel and how they can offer many new types of services.

The types of services that mobile telephone systems can offer vary depending on the technologies, devices and system types. Discover the key types of mobile services including circuit switched voice services, push to talk (dispatch) services, messaging, data services, location based services, multicast services. Learn how the new mobile telephone systems can offer services with different quality levels of service.



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