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System Fundamentals

Authors: Lawrence Harte, Dr. Kalai Kalaichelvan
ISBN: 1-932813-54-3
Page Size: 7.5" x 9.25" soft cover book
Copyright: 2007

Number of Pages: 124
Number of Diagrams: 47

Printed or Electronic Version (2.7MB) Available - Electronic Version has Color Diagrams

Description

This book explains the functional parts of a WiMAX system and its basic operation. You will learn how WiMAX can use base stations to provide high speed data connections that can be used for voice, data and video services to distances of over 30 km.

The original WiMAX system was designed to operate at 10-66 GHz and it had to change to offer broadband wireless access (BWA) in the 2-11 GHz frequency range. To do this, the WiMAX standard includes variants (profiles) that use different combinations of radio channel types (single carrier –vs- multicarrier), modulation types, channel coding types to provide fixed, nomadic or portable services.



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WiMAX can provide multiple types of services to the same user with different QoS levels. For example, it is possible to install a single WiMAX transceiver in an office building and provide real time telephone services and best effort Internet browsing services on the same WiMAX connection. To do this, WiMAX was designed to mix contention based (competitive access) and contention free (polled access) to provide services which have different quality of service (QoS) levels.

You will learn about WiMAX protocols and how they are designed to allow for point to point (PTP), point to multipoint (PMP) and mesh networks. Operators can use the mesh configuration to allow it to link base stations without the need to install or lease interconnecting communication lines. Some of the services WiMAX operators can provide include leased line, residential broadband, commercial broadband and digital television (IPTV) services.

WiMAX can use radio channel bandwidths that can vary from 1.25 MHz to 28 MHz and data transmission rates can exceed 155 Mbps. The types of data connections on WiMAX radio channels include basic (physical connection), primary (device control), secondary (configuration) and transport (user data).

You will learn about the typical range for WIMAX systems and how to extend the range of WIMAX systems through the use of directional antennas. Some of the most important topics featured include:

• The Functional parts of WiMAX systems
• Basic WiMAX Operation
• The types of WIMAX services
• Data transmission rates
• WIMAX industry standards
• WIMAX technology evolution
• Protocols used in WiMAX
• Physical and logical channel types
• The different types of WIMAX devices
• Basic security operation

Sample Diagrams

There are 47 explanatory diagrams in this book

WiMAX Applications

This figure shows some of the applications that WiMAX systems can be used for. This diagram shows that WiMAX can provide wireless broadband Internet access, telephone access services, television service access and mobile telephone services.

WiMAX Radio Channel Types

This figure shows that WiMAX radio channels can be single carrier or multiple carriers. This diagram shows that the bandwidth of WiMAX radio channels can vary from 1.25 MHz to 28 MHz in steps of 1.75 MHz. This example also shows that a WiMAX system that is using multicarrier OFDMA and how some of the subcarriers have been assigned to a specific user.

WiMAX Standard Differences

This figure shows a comparison between the original Fixed WiMAX standard and the WiMAX standard that can be used for fixed, mobile and portable. This table shows that the original 802.16 standard was released in 2004 and it was only capable of providing fixed wireless data services. It used OFDM modulation and could be deployed in both TDD or FDD formats. The 802.16e standard was released in 2005 (now merged into the original 802.16 standard) was designed for fixed, mobile and portable operation. It used OFDMA modulation with TDD and optionally FDD duplexing capability.

Table of Contents

What is WiMAX

-Advantages of WiMAX
-WiMAX Compared to 802.11 Wi-Fi
-WiMAX Compared to Mobile Telephone Data Systems
-Data Transmission Rates
-WiMAX Service Rates
-Radio Coverage Area
-Frequency Bands
-Channel Loading
-Spectral Efficiency
-Fixed WiMAX
-Mobile WiMAX

WiMAX Standards

WiMAX Broadband Applications

-WiMAX VoIP
-Broadband Data Connections
-Digital Television
-E1/T1 over WiMAX
-Urban WiMAX Hot Zones
-Surveillance Services
-Multi-Tenant Units (MTU) and Multi-Dwelling Unit (MDU) Connections
-Rural Connections

Wireless Broadband System Parts

-Network Topology
Point to Point (PTP)
Point to Multipoint (PMP)
Mesh Network
-Chassis Based Systems
-Pico Based Systems
-Subscriber Stations (SS)
Indoor Subscriber Stations
Outdoor Subscriber Stations
-Base Stations (BS)
Indoor Base Stations
Outdoor Base Stations
-Packet Switches
-Operational Support System (OSS)
-Gateways
-Antennas

Technologies

-Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)
-Orthogonal Frequency Multiple Access (OFDMA)
-Frequency Reuse
-Modulation
Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK)
Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK)
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM)
Adaptive Modulation
-Diversity Transmission
Transmission Diversity
Receive Diversity
Frequency Diversity
Temporal (Time) Diversity
Spatial Diversity
-Adaptive Antenna System (AAS)

WiMAX Radio Overview

-WiMAX Protocol Layers
MAC Convergence
MAC Layer
MAC Privacy
Physical Layer
Security Sub Layer
-Radio Propagation
Line of Sight (LOS)
Not Line of Sight (NLOS)
-Addressing
-Medium Access Control Protocol Data Units (MAC PDUs)
-Radio Packets (Bursts)
-Channel Descriptors
-Channel Coding
Error Correction Coding
Interleaving
Randomization
-Duplex Transmission
-Ranging (Dynamic Time Alignment)
-Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS)
-RF Power Control
-Channel Measurement Reports
-Payload Header Suppression (PHS)
-Convergence Sublayer (CS)
-Sub Channelization (Sub-carriers)
-Retransmission Policy
Selective Repeat (SR)
Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ)
-Physical RF Channels
-Logical Channels
Connection ID (CID)
Service Flow ID (SFID)

WiMAX Operation

-Channel Acquisition
-Initial Ranging
-Medium Access Control
-Radio Link Control (RLC)

Types of Connections

-Basic Connection
-Primary Management Connection
-Secondary Management Connection
-Transport Connection

Quality of Service (QoS)

-Service Availability
-Data Throughput
-Delay
-Jitter
-Error Rate
Bit Error Rate (BER)
Packet Loss Rate (PLR)

Scheduling Services

-Unsolicited Grant Service (UGS)
-Real Time Polling Service (RTPS)
-Non-Real Time Polling Service (nRTPS)
-Best Effort Service (BE)

Service Flows and Classes

-Service Flows
-Service Class

WiMAX Certification

-WiMAX Forum
-Certification Process

Appendix - acronyms

Index

Wimax ExplainedAcronyms-Appendix 1

3DES - Triple Data Encryption Standard
AAS - Adaptive Antenna System
ABR - Available Bit Rate
ACK - Acknowledgment
AISN - ARQ Identifier sequence number
AK - Authorization Key
AMC - Adaptive Modulation and Coding
AOA - Angle of Arrival
AOD - Angle of Departure
AP - Access Point
ARQ - Automatic Repeat Request
ASIC - Application Specific Integrated Circuit
ATDD - Adaptive Time Division Duplex
ATM - Asynchronous Transfer Mode
ATS - Abstract Test Suite
BE - Best Effort Service
BER - Bit Error Rate
BPSK - Binary Phase - Shift Keying
BRAN - Broadband Radio Access Networks
BRS - Broadband Radio Service
BS - Base Station
BSN - Block Sequence Number
BTC - Block Turbo Code
BWA - Broadband Wireless Access
BW - Bandwidth
C/I - Carrier To Interference Signal Ratio
CAC - Call Admission Control
CBC - Cipher Block Chaining
CBLER - Coded Block Error Rate
CBR - Constant Bit Rate
CC - Convolutional Coding
CDMA - Code Division Multiple Access
CID - Connection Identifier
CINR - Carrier to interference - plus - noise ratio
CLR - Cell Loss Rate
COS - Class Of Service
CPE - Customer Premises Equipment
CRC - Cyclic Redundancy Check
CSCH - Centralized Scheduling
CS - Convergence Sublayer
CSMA/CA - Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance
CTS - Clear To Send
DAMA - Demand Assigned Multiple Access
DBPC - Downlink Burst Profile Change
DCD - Downlink Channel Descriptor
DCF - Distributed Coordination Function
DES - Data Encryption Standard
DFS - Dynamic Frequency Selection
DHCP - Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
DIUC - Downlink Interval Usage Code
DL - Downlink
DLFP - Downlink Frame Prefix
DOCSIS+ - Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification +
DSA - Dynamic Service Addition
DSC - Dynamic Service Change
DSCH - Distributed Scheduling
DSCP - Differentiated Service Code Point
DSD - Dynamic Service Delete
DSL - Digital Subscriber Line
DVB - Digital Video Broadcast
EAP - Extensible Authentication Protocol
EGC - Equal Gain Combiner
EIRP - Effective Isotropic Radiated Power
EKS - Encryption Key Sequency
FC - Fragment Control Field
FDD - Frequency Division Duplex
FDMA - Frequency Division Multiple Access
FDM - Frequency Division Multiplexing
FEC - Forward Error Correction
FFT - Fast Fourier Transform
FHSS - Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum
FTP - File Transfer Protocol
GP - Guard Period
GPS - Global Positioning System
GSM - Global System For Mobile Communications
HARQ - Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request
H-FDD - Half Frequency Division Duplex
HSDPA - High Speed Downlink Packet Access
HTTP - Hypertext Transfer Protocol
IE - Information Elements
IFFT - Inverse Fast Fourier Transform
IP - Internet Protocol
ISI - Inter Symbol Interference
KEK - Key Encryption Key
LAN - Local Area Network
LinkID - Link Identifier
LLC - Logical Link Control
LMDS - Local Multichannel Distribution Service
LMSC - LAN/MAN Standards Committee
LOS - Line Of Sight
LSB - Least Significant Bit
MAC - Medium Access Control
MAN - Metropolitan Area Network
MIB - Management Information Base
MIMO - Multiple In Multiple Out
MMDS - Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service
MPDU - MAC Protocol Data Unit
MPLS - MultiProtocol Label Switching
MRC - Maximal Ratio Combining
MSB - Most Significant Bit
MSDU - MAC Service Data Unit
MS - Mobile Station
NACK - Negative Acknowledgement
NLOS - Not Line of Sight
NodeID - Node Identifier
NRTPS - Non - Real Time Polling Service
OFDMA - Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access
OFDM - Optical Frequency Division Multiplexing
OFDM - Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
OSI - Open Systems Interconnection
PAN - Personal Area Network
PAPR - Peak to Average Power Ratio
PCF - Point Coordination Function
PCS - Packet Convergence Sublayer
PDU - Protocol Data Unit
PER - Packet Error Rate
PHSI - Payload Header Suppression Index
PHSM - Payload Header Suppression Mask
PHS - Payload Header Suppression
PHY - Physical Layer
PICS - Protocol Implementation Conformance Statement
PKM - Privacy Key Management Protocol
PM - Poll Me Bit
PMP - Point to Multipoint
PN - Packet Number
PRBS - Pseudo - Random Binary Sequence
PSH - Packing Subheaders
PS - Physical Slot
PTP - Point to Point
QAM - Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
QoS - Quality Of Service
QPSK - Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
RCID - Reduced Connection Identifier
RCT - Radio Conformance Tests
RF - Radio Frequency
RLC - Radio Link Control Protocol
RSSI - Received Signal Strength Indicator
RSV - Reserved
RTG - Receive - Transmit Transition Gap
RTPS - Real Time Polling Service
RTS - Request To Send
SAID - Security Association Identifier
SAP - Service Access Point
SA - Security Association
SC - Single Carrier
SDMA - Spatial Division Multiple Access
SDO - Standards Development Organizations
SDU - Service Data Unit
SFID - Service Flow Identifier
SHA - 1 - Secure Hash Algorithm Number 1
SI - Slip Indicator
SLA - Service Level Agreement
SNMP - Simple Network Management Protocol
SNR - Signal To Noise Ratio
SPID - Subpacket Identifier
SR - Selective Repeat
SSRTG - Subscriber Station Receive - Transmit Transition Gap
SS - Subscriber Station
SSTG - Subscriber Station Transition Gaps
SSTTG - Subscriber Station Transmit - Receive Transition Gap
TCM - Trellis Coded Modulation
TCP - Transmission Control Protocol
TDD - Time Division Duplex
TDMA - Time Division Multiple Access
TDM - Time Division Multiplexing
TEK - Traffic Encryption Key
TFTP - Trivial File Transfer Protocol
TLV - Type Length Value
TOS - Type Of Service
TSS&TP - Test Suite Structure and Test Purposes
TTG - Transmit - Receive Transition Gap
UBR - Unspecified Bit Rate
UCD - Uplink Channel Descriptor
UDP - User Datagram Protocol
UIUC - Uplink Interval Usage Code
UL - Uplink
VCI - Virtual Channel Identifier
VC - Virtual Channel
VLAN - Virtual Local Area Network
VoIP - Voice Over Internet Protocol
VPI - Virtual Path Identifier
VP - Virtual Path
WiMax - Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access
WLAN - Wireless Local Area Network
WPAN - Wireless Personal Area Network

About the Authors

Mr. Lawrence Harte is a communications expert with over 29 years technical and business experience. He has authored over 80 books and is an inventor of several communication patents. His many degrees and certificates include an Executive MBA from Wake Forest University and a BSET from the University of the State of New York.

A leader in business and technology, Dr. Kalaichelvan has over 20 years of experience as an executive in the communications industry. Since founding EION in 2001, Dr. Kalai Kalaichelvan has grown the business to become a world leader in broadband wireless networking solutions and a pioneer in WiMAX product development. Kalai's knowledge of the industry has led him to speaking engagements at the World Bank and the title Innovator of the Year from the National Research Council and the CATA Alliance.

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